Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the most urgent problems of our generation. It is already the cause of 700,000 human deaths every year and this figure is projected to rise to 10 million each year by 2050 if the problem is left unresolved. That’s more deaths than are currently caused by cancer (O’Neill, 2016).
Vaccination is key measure to help reduce dependence on antibiotics and therefore mitigate the increase in antimicrobial resistance ( AMR)
The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that by 2050 the demand for food will grow by 60% with an annual increase in the production of animal proteins of around 1.7%. With the improvement of household income and increase in protein meat consumption it is projected by 2050 meat production will rise by nearly 70%, aquaculture by 90% and dairy by 55%.
Animal feeds play a leading role in the global food industry, ensuring safe, abundant and affordable animal protein production throughout the world.
The global annual compound feed production is estimated to be just over one billion tonnes annually and global commercial feed manufacturing generates an estimated annual turnover of over US $400 billion. The world market for additives for animal feed has a forecast of over US $28 billion in 2021.
Clover is a legume that is either grown as a single stand alone cover crop or within grass leys. The fact that clover is a legume means it can fix nitrogen thereby supporting lo input agronomy.
Clover leaves have a protein content of up to 27% making it a nutritious addition to feed formulations
The amino acids profile of clover while good has been significantly improved when fractionated
Amino acids are key components of human and animal nutrition, both as part of a protein-containing diet, and as supplemented individual products.
Higher animals cannot produce nine (essential) amino acids. A diet lacking in these results in poor development and the animal is unable to achieve their genetically determined potential.
Today several amino acids are produced in fermentation plants with capacities of more than 100,000 tonnes to serve the requirements of animal feed and human nutrition. The main fermentative amino acids for animal nutrition are lysine, threonine and tryptophan.
Methionine continues to be manufactured for animal feed use by chemical synthesis from petrochemicals. It is expected the global methionine market size will increase from US $5.8 billion to US $ 7.2 billion by 2025 (MarketWatch, 2020)